Dr. David D. Burns, MD

TEAM-CBT is a transdiagnostic framework for conducting evidence-based therapy that includes four elements known to be related to positive treatment outcomes:

T = Testing: Self-report measurement of symptoms and the therapeutic alliance at every session with every patient

E = Empathy: Specific skills to help the therapist establish a warm therapeutic alliance and address alliance ruptures with each patient before proceeding to CBT Methods

A = Agenda Setting: Numerous tools to create a collaborative agenda with each patient and address motivation/reduce resistance to change before proceeding to CBT methods

M = Methods: 50+ cognitive and behavioral methods for different types of symptoms

Below is a list of recent, peer-reviewed, relevant references that provide empirical support for each of the four aspects of the TEAM-CBT treatment/training framework.

Recent evidence for the importance of Testing (also called Routine Outcome Monitoring)

Boswell, J.F., Kraus, D.R., Miller, S.D., Lambert, M.J. (2013). Implementing routine outcome monitoring in clinical practice: Benefits, challenges, and solutions. Psychotherapy Research, Pages 6-19 | Published online: 26 Jul 2013.

Persons, J.B. (2007). Psychotherapists collect data during routine clinical work that can contribute to knowledge about mechanisms of change in psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14(3), 244-246.

Persons, J.B., Koerner, K., Eidelman, P., Thomas, C., & Liu, H. (2016). Increasing psychotherapists’ adoption and implementation of the evidence-based practice of progress monitoring. Behavior Research and Therapy, January(76), 24-31.

Recent evidence for the importance of empathy training (focusing on the therapeutic alliance and repair of alliance ruptures):

Burns, D. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1992). Therapeutic empathy and recovery from depression in cognitive-behavioral therapy: A structural equation model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(3), 441 – 449.

Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M.B.C., Hamilton, J., Ring-Kurtz, S., & Gallop, R. (2011). The dependability of alliance assessments: the alliance-outcome correlations is larger than you might think. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(3), 267-278.

Huppert, J.D., Kivity, Y., Barlow, H., Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2014). Therapist effects and the outcome-alliance correlation in cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behavior Research and Therapy, January(52) 26-34.

Zilcha-Mano, S., Muran, J.C., Hungr, C., Eubanks, C.F., Safran, J.D., & Winston, A. (2016). The relationship between alliance and outcome: Analysis of a two-person perspective on alliance and session outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, June 84(6), 484-496.

Recent evidence for the importance of addressing motivation/resistance in patients receiving CBT for depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse:

Aviram, A., Westra, H.A., Constantino, M.J., & Antony, M.M. (2016, March 31) Responsive management of early resistance in cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. (epub ahead of print)

Burns, D., Westra, H., Trockel, M., & Fisher, A. (2013). Motivation and changes in depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37, 368-379.

Pombo, S., Luísa Figueira, M., Walter, H., & Lesch, O. (2016). Motivational factors and negative affectivity as predictors of alcohol craving. Psychiatry Research, 243, 53-60.

Westra, H.A., Constantino, M.J., & Antony, M.M. (2016, March 17). Integrating motivational interviewing with cognitive-behavioral therapy for severe generalized anxiety disorder: an allegiance-controlled randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

Recent evidence supporting the efficacy of certain CBT Methods:

Aaronson, C.J., Shear, M.K., Goetz, R.R., Allen, L.B., Barlow, D.H., White, K.S., Gorman, J.M. (2008). Predictors and time course of response among panic disorder patients treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(3), 418-424.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M, & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31.

Fang, A., Sawyer, A.T., Asnaani, A., & Hofmann, S. (2013). Social mishap exposures for social anxiety disorder: an important treatment ingredient. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(2), 213-220.

Floyd, M., Rhoen, N., Shackelford, J.A., Hubbard, K.L., Parnell, M.B., Scogin, F., & Coates, A. (2006). Two-year follow-up of bibliotherapy and individual cognitive therapy for depressed older adults. Behavioral Modification, 30(3), 281-284.

Hofmann, S.G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I.J., Sawyer, A.T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(5), 427-440.

Hofmann SG, Meuret AE, Rosenfield D, Suvak MK, Barlow DH, Gorman JM, Shear MK, …Woods SW. (2007). Preliminary evidence for cognitive mediation during cognitive-behavioral therapy of panic disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(3), 374-379.

Hofmann, S.G.,& Smits, J.A. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69(4), 621-632.